AdvertisementIn light of these new rules, fake vaccine passports – mostly bought and sold on the darknet – have become a booming business. Most vaccine passports are digitised, but paper versions are also accepted – a move widely criticised for being easy to falsify. Several US states have also put their foot down after noticing the uptick in fake vaccine certificates. New York legislators have put forward a bill to outlaw possessing or forging fake vaccine passports, and New Jersey is considering doing the same. The EHRC has pointed out that vaccine passports could deepen social exclusion in groups where vaccine take-up is lower, including those from migrant and marginalised communities and lower-income backgrounds.